Difference between Primary and Secondary Cell lines: Cell lines are cultures of cells that are derived from a single parent cell. They are grown in laboratories for scientific research. There are many different types of cell lines, each with their own unique characteristics. Cell lines can be used to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on cells. They can also be used to study the structure and function of cells. Cell lines can be used to study the development of cancer and other diseases.
What are Cell lines?
Cell line is established permanent culture having potential for indefinite growth in controlled environment i.e. culture media, Temperature and humidity. Cell lines are used in in vitro models for screening of in vitro toxicity and anticancer activities of the test item.
Cell lines are mainly two types
- Primary cell lines
- Secondary cell lines
Primary cell lines
Primary cell lines are an important tool in biomedical research. They are derived from normal cells or cancer cells and can be grown in laboratory cultures. Primary cell lines have many advantages over other types of cell lines, including their ability to more accurately model human physiology and disease.
Primary cell lines are derived from normal cells or cancer cells that can be grown in laboratory cultures. These cell lines have many advantages over other types of cell lines, including their ability to more accurately model human physiology and disease. In addition, primary cell lines can be used to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types involved in disease.
Primary cells are isolated directly from the tissue e.g. Human or Animal, using enzymatic or mechanical methods. Once isolated, cells are transferred in tissue flask with the appropriate medium, essential amino acid and protein source.
These primary cells could be identified as Adherent cells and Suspension cells.
Adherent cells or anchorage-independent cells are generally grow in the flat surface and attached to the bottom of the Tissue flask. Once it gets nourished with medium, essential amino acid and protein, cells will grow according to its cell cycle. Cell lines confluency can be checked twice in a day in the aseptic conditions by the inverted microscope. Once confluency is reached up to 70%, cell lines can be removed from the flask by the enzymatic digestion.
Suspension cells are generally floating cells in the medium and do not required to attach to the surface of the tissue flask. Most of the suspension cells are obtained from the blood system.
Primary cell lines have limited life span and generally required of additional care in terms of passage and sub culture. These cell lines can be used in the experiment with additional details of the donor’s age, medical history, race, and sex. Examples of the primary cell lines are Astrocytes, Hepatocytes, Smooth Muscle, Chondrocytes, and Adipocytes.
Advantages of Primary Cell lines
- Primary cell lines have many advantages over other types of cell lines.
- They are more representative of the original tissue, they are less likely to become immortalized, and they often have a longer lifespan.
- Primary cell lines can also be used to study rarer diseases or conditions that may not be well-represented in other cell line types.
Secondary cell lines
Secondary cell lines are those cell lines, which have been passaged over a long period of time and having homogenous genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of cell lines can be passaged up to 80 passages, and can be utilized for the experiment. However, these kinds of cells are less referred because they have lost the true characteristics of the original tissue from which they were isolated.
Examples of the primary cell lines are HeLa, HEK293, CHO and Sf9.
Advantages of Secondary cell lines
- Secondary cell lines have been extensively characterized and are a well-defined model system.
- They are easy to grow and maintain in the laboratory.
- They can be used to study a variety of biological processes.4. They are a cost-effective alternative to primary cells.
Other Cells types
There are several types of cell lines derived from normal cells, including:
1. Immortalized cell line: A cell line that has been altered so that it can divide an unlimited number of times in culture. Most immortalized cell lines are cancerous.
2. Continuous cell line: A cell line that will divide indefinitely if given the proper conditions. These cells are usually transformed, meaning they have undergone changes that allow them to keep growing.
3. Hybridoma: A hybrid between a tumor and a normal antibody-producing B lymphocyte; commonly used to produce monoclonal antibodies in vitro.
Difference between Primary and Secondary Cell lines
Primary cell lines are derived from tissue that has been dissociated into single cells. The cells are then grown in culture, where they divide and proliferate. After a certain number of population doublings, the cells reach senescence and can no longer divide. Secondary cell lines are established by passage of primary cells. That is, when the primary cells reach senescence, they are trypsinized (dissociated into single cells), and then cultured again. This time, however, the cultures contain a mix of both old and young cells. The old cells quickly die off, leaving behind only the younger cells to proliferate.
There are a few other differences between primary and secondary cell lines. For example, primary cells generally have a shorter lifespan than their secondary counterparts. Additionally, because they are derived from a specific tissue type, primary cells usually display more cell-type specific characteristics than do secondary cell lines. Finally, the genetic stability of primary cell lines is often lower than that of secondary cell lines, meaning that they are more likely to mutate over time.